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Full text of "Resource Management Report January 1963"

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No. 67 January, 1963 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 




ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. F.A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



No. 67 January, 1963 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 




ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C F.A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 
No. 67 January, 1963. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
Fall Goose Hunt - Fort Severn, 1962. 

- by C. E. Monk 1 

Wood Duck Banding at Nogies Creek, Lindsay 

District, Summer of 1962. - by R. E. Dimsdale 7 

Report on Waterfowl Banding Project Completed 
at Arm Lake, Geraldton District, Summer of 1962. 

- by B. H. Gibson 16 

Sharp- tail and Ruffed Grouse Spring Survey and 
Brood Counts, Fort Frances District, 1962. 

- by John G. Miller 25 

Ruffed Grouse Drum and Brood Counts, Kenora 

District, 1962. - by W. H. Charlton 29 

Reforestation on Shallow Soils Here and Abroad. 

- by E. P* fidson 35 

Report on Kukagami Lake Angling Success, 1961. 

- D. R. Hughson 43 

A Summary of the Bait- fish Industry in the 

Kenora District - 1961. - by A. R. Olsen 49 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA- DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



■ -. 



- ■ •■! 



- 1 - 

FALL GOOSE HUNT - FORT SEVERN - 1962 

by 

C. E. Monk 

Conservation Officer 



Abstract 

The Regulations establishing this portion of the 
Patricias as a "hinterland area" have been rescinded. 
1962 is the first year hunters may travel to Fort 
Severn for the purpose of hunting geese. Monies 
paid to the Fort Severn band of Indians, as a direct 
result of the goose hunt for guiding, aircraft 
mooring, moccasins, plucking geese, and gratuities, 
totalled $2,465*00. A total of 47 hunters took home 
452 geese. Thirty- seven goose heads were collected 
for salt gland studies. Highlight of the goose hunt 
was the recording of the second, thirds fourth and 
fifth record of Ross 1 goose for Ontario, and the 
collecting of specimens. 



Introduction 

Fort Severn is the most northerly outpost in the Province, 
and is situated approximately 400 air miles north of Sioux Lookout, 
It is located eight miles inland on the northwest shore of the 
Severn River from Hudson Bay. It is accessible only by aircraft 
and ship. 

Sioux Lookout District stationed a man at Fort Severn 
from September 15 to 30 to evaluate the goose hunt in the 
following terms: 

1. Economic importance to the Fort Severn Indian Band. 

2. To record the number of hunters. 

3. Enforcement of the Migratory Bird Regulations. 

4. To record the total kill of geese by species. 

5. Collection of various goose heads for salt gland studies. 



(1) Economic Importance to the Fort Severn Indian Band 
Guiding 

There are approximately 50 male inhabitants capable of 
providing service as a guide. Selection of guides is provided 
by the chief and one councilman. The guides, with the exception of 
a few older men, take little responsibility other than calling the 
geese into range of the hunter. Each hunter usually employs 
one guide. The fee charged per day is $15.00; plus gas. three 
gallons of mixed gas at $1.45 per gallon = $4.35; plus one box of 
shells @$3.60; plus sandwiches and coffee @ $1.00. The canoe and 
motor is provided by the guide. It requires 1% gallons of gas to 
make a return trip to the shooting area. The guides retain the 
excess \\ gallons of gas and secure a fresh three gallons for the 
next day. Ammunition is always in short demand and the box of 
shells received by a guide each day is the same as cash. Usually 
two guides and two hunters use the same canoe. In this way the 
\\ gallons of gas is divided equally between the two guides. Since 
this is variable, it is probable that each guide receives $1.00 
worth of gas each day while guiding. Total pay to one guide each 
day - $20.60. 

During the 1962 hunt there were 39 guides employed for 
91 days. Each guide averaged 2,3 days guiding. Total wages for 
guiding services - $1874.60. This includes gas and ammunition. 
In several cases the guides received more than one box of shells per 
day. 

Plucking Geese 

An average of 20 cents per goose is charged for 
eviscerating and plucking the geese. In no instance did a hunter 
clean or pick his own geese. A total of 452 geese were plucked 
resulting in monies totalling $90.40 being collected by the women 
of the band. 

Aircraft Mooring 

Because of the tides in the Severn River, each pilot 
usually employs a native to watch his aircraft both night and day. 
$5.00 is the usual pay for this service. Ten aircraft moored for 
a total of 23 nights resulted in $115.00 being received by various 
members of the band. 

Moccasins 

Some moccasins are made by the women and sold to the local 
Hudson's Bay Company store. Tourists are rare at this post and very 
few pairs are sold during the year. The American tourists visiting 
this fall brought a real boon to the demand for moccasins. As a 
result those women who had a few pairs made in anticipation of the 
goose hunt were soon sold out. Orders were placed for several more. 



- 3 - 

The price of moccasins averaged $5.00 per pair. Estimated sale 
including orders totalled 47 pairs for $235.00. 

Gratuities 

These are difficult to pin down. Some guides were known 
to have received as much as $10.00 in tips for three days' guiding. 
Estimated gratuities - $150.00. 

(2) Hunters 

Twenty- seven non-resident and twenty resident of Ontario 
hunters participated in the goose hunt. Most non-residents were 
from Minnesota. Two were from Missouri and one from Illinois. 
The Ontario residents were from Kenora, Fort William and Fort 
Frances areas. 

All hunters employed a guide. Only five failed to obtain 
the 10 geese possession limit. Each hunter averaged 2.3 days hunting 
for a total of 91 days hunting. 

(3) Migratory Bird Regulations 

Information was received from a reasonable reliable source 
that one party of three hunters was hunting geese on September 9, 
prior to the open season. 

One case of a guide offering 20 geese for sale to an 
unlucky sportsman was uncovered before the transaction could take 
place. Warnings were given to the guide as well as the hunter. 

Guides and hunters were both permitted to shoot geese i 
Hunters were allowed to take their five geese per day; and any excess 
geese were given to the Indians, 



- 4 



Goose Harvest 



(4) Temporal distribution of kill by species from Sept. 15 - 30 
inclusive by natives and tourists: 



Date 


Canada 


Blue 


Lesser Snow 


Richardson's 


Ross 1 


Ducks 


Sept. 


(Brant a 


(Chen 


(Chen hyper- 


(Branta 


(Chen 






canad- 


caeru- 


borea hyper - 


canadensis 


rossii 






ensis) 


lescens) 


borea 


hutchinsii)* 






15 






1 








16 




5 


22 








17 




6 


22 


1 






18 


1 


14 


62 


2 






19 


4 


20 


29 


4 




1 pintail 


20 




11 


23 








21 




19 


24 


2 


1 




22 


1 


15 


27 




1 




23 


1 


17 


42 








24 


4 


31 


ill 


3 


1 


2 blacks 


25 


1 


24 


68 








26 


1 


15 


56 




1 




27 


4 


40 


138 


4 






28 


1 


19 


52 


2 






29 


3 


4 


31 








30 






6 









Totals 



21 



240 



714 



18 



* Richardson's Goose 

The goose being taken by hunters at Fort Severn is probably 
a different subspecies and not Richardson's Goose. Weights are up to 
six pounds for an adult female. 

Total kill of all species at Fort Severn from Sept. 15 
to 30 was 997 geese and three ducks. 



Per cent of the Kill by Species 



Lesser Snow 


71.4% 


Blue 


24.0% 


Canada 


2.1% 


Richardson ' s 


1.8% 


Ross' 


.4% 


Ducks 


.3% 



(5) Collection of Specimens 

Twenty-five lesser snow, 5 Canadas and 7 Richardson's 
geese were aged and sexed and the heads collected for salt gland 
studies. Wings, feet and weights were recorded from seven adult 
Richardson's geese. 

One complete specimen of a Ross' goose was collected. 
This particular specimen was given to Mr. H. G. Lumsden of our 
Research Branch. One Ross' goose skeleton, and the head and feet 
of another were collected. 

Fourteen banded geese were aged and sexed and this 
information along with band numbers is being forwarded to the U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service. 

Other Observations 

Five tourists and guides starting out to angle for 
speckled trout some two miles from Fort Severn were advised that the 
season was closed. 

A total of 23 seals were taken by the Fort Severn band 
during September 15 - 30, inclusive, to be used as dog food. 

There is a definite lack of accommodation for visitors 
at Fort Severn. 

Tourists from United States paid $450.00 each for the 
goose hunt at Fort Severn. This includes transportation by aircraft 
from Fort Frances, guide, food and accommodation. This fee does 
not include refreshments, shells or souvenirs. The twenty-seven 
non-residents interviewed claimed to have spent a total of $14,562.00 
including transportation for their goose hunt at Fort Severn. 

Conclusions 

The earning of $2,456.00 by the band at Fort Severn who 
have practically no income other than trapping is very important. 
There is little doubt that with an increase in hunters next season 
this amount will be larger. The sale of moccasins could be greatly 
increased if a good supply is on hand prior to next season. 

Unrestricted hunting on both the north and south channels 
of the Severn River as well as Partridge Island could effect the 
future success of the hunters in easily obtaining their limit of 
geese. In the same way, overshooting of the legal limit of five 
geese per day (any geese over five are taken by the guides), may 
prove quite undesirable. 



- 6 - 

Close supervision of all aspects of the hunt is very 
necessary to ensure success for both the tourists and the band. 
The geese are important to the natives as food and proper management 
is essential. 

The occurrence of Ross' goose at Fort Severn is of great 
significance and warrants close scrutiny in the future. 

Similarly the goose we call Richardson's requires 
investigations and the collection of specimen data during future 
hunts is a must. 

A sport fishery for brook or speckled trout exists at 
the Goose, Severn and Pipowitan Rivers prior to September 15. 

Seal, hunting in the Severn River by tourists might also 
be encouraged. The band desperately needs seal meat for dog food 
at all times. 

Recommendations 

(1) A guide's course for those members of the band who will be 
guiding during the 1963 open season. Such instruction should 
be of two or three days duration at which time the guides 
should be acquainted with their duties and responsibilities 
to the tourist. 

(2) The five geese per day limit by hunters must be adhered to. To 
accomplish this the guides should not be permitted to hunt. If 
they do hunt the guide and tourist together should kill no more 
than 10 geese per day. Perhaps instructions to the guides prior 
to next open season may be the best approach to this problem. 

(3) A Department officer should be stationed at Fort Severn one 
week before the open season in 1963. This would serve as a 
deterrent to pre- season hunting by tourists and provide an 
opportunity to examine the geese taken by the natives at that 
time. 

(4) A portion of the coastal region of Partridge Island to be made 
a waterfowl sanctuary. This is certainly in the future and will 
depend to a large extent on the increase of hunters each year 
and the availability of geese. 



WOOD DUCK. BANDING AT NOGIES CREEK 
LINDSAY DISTRICT, SUMMER OF 1962 

by 
R. E. Dimsdale 



Abstract 

One hundred wood ducks and four black ducks were 
banded during July, August and the first two weeks 
of September at Nogies Creek, six miles northeast 
of Bobcaygeon in Lindsay District. The area is 
described and an accompanying sketch map provided. 
Trapping methods and difficulties encountered, notably 
injuries to several birds in traps, are enumerated 
and ways suggested for surmounting the latter. Band- 
ing data are summarized and tentatively evaluated . 
An estimate is made of the proportion banded of the 
total wood duck population present. Costs and 
equipment are examined. It is concluded that a 
similar project should be undertaken next year if 
full time labour is available. 



Introduction 

This project was undertaken as part of the province-wide 
effort to get more information on the wood duck in its northern 
breeding grounds. 

Record of Time Spent on Project 

June 30th - July 14th. Familiarization period. This 
was necessarily long because the bander was new to the country. It 
included a valuable day of instruction in trapping techniques at 
Tweed from Mr. W. R. Catton of Pembroke, who also visited Nogies 
Creek to give further advice. Three wood duck broods and one flock 
of eclipse males were located during this fortnight. 

July 15th - July 22nd. Construction and siting of bait 
platforms. Baiting was begun and two more broods were found. 

July 23rd - July 26th. Trap construction was commenced on 
receipt of materials. One more brood was found and the eclipse flock 
seen to be breaking up. 

July 27th - September 11th. More or less continuous trap- 
ping with a break from August 20th - 23rd using eight traps at seven 
sites. 

September 12th - September 13th. On the target figure of 
one hundred being reached traps were dismantled and stored, and the 
station was closed down. 



Description of the Area 

Nogies Creek Maskinonge Research Station is about six 
miles northeast of Bobcaygeon. The Fish Sanctuary, where 90 
per cent of the trapping was done, is part of a former logging creek, 
bounded to the north by a rock-cut at the foot of Bass Lake (in Galway 
Township) and to the south by a dam controlling the flow from the 
stretch of water known as the Big Marsh (in Harvey Township) . The 
distance from the rock-cut to the dam is three miles direct and five 
miles by water,, The creek flows from north to south, frequently cross- 
ing low points in the ridges of the Precambrian rock which lie north- 
east to southwest. Where the troughs are broad, large areas of timber- 
land have been swamped for many years, and as a result there is an 
abundance of hole nesting bird species. Woodland bordering the creek 
is mixed, birch ( Betula ) , spruce ( Picea ) and white cedar (Thuja 
occidentalis ) predominating,, There is a good stand of sugar maple 
( Acer saccharum ) on the islands in the eastern half of the Big Marsh 
and plenty of red maple ( Acer rubrum ) especially in the northeast 
section of the area. Small groups of white pine ( Pinus strobus ) 
are to be found in rocky situations, and individuals are thinly 
scattered among the commoner species. There is scarcely any 
unswamped timber mature enough to cater for a significant number of 
hole nesters. Large areas of the flooded timberland are choked with 
bushes growing from old stumps » This seems to favour hooded merganser 
( Lophodytes cucullatus ) , Other areas show only stumps and tilted 
roots, even so there should be plenty of nesting opportunities for 
the wood duck ( Aix sponsa ) , 

Of the aquatic plants, the water-lilies ( Nuphar sp. and 
Nvmphaea odorata ) are very, common,. Other species met with all over 
the creek are pondweeds ( Potamogeton spp) , smartweeds ( Polygonum 
spp) , waterweeds (A narcharis spp) , pickerel weed ( Pontederia spTT 
water milfoils ( Myriophyllum sp) , muskgrass ( Chara sp) , bladderwort 
( Utricularia sp) , and coontail ( Ceratophyllum demersum ) • Locally 
predominant are cattail ( Typha latifolia ) 9 sedges (family Cyperaceae ) 
horsetail ( Equisetum sp) , and grasses (family Gramineae ) . Spike 
rushes ( Eleocharis spp) and bulrushes ( Scirpus spp) were relatively 
rare. There is a small patch of wild celery ( Vallisneria american a) 
artificially introduced and reported to be spreading in a section 
of the eastern half of the Big Marsh „ Wild rice ( Zizania aquatica ) , 
probably also introduced, is to be found opposite the station and among 
the hunters' blinds in the marsh south of Watson's Bridge. 

A beaver pond, (referred to as Concession Pond in this 
report) situated northeast of the bridge at the mouth of Concession 
Creek (called Lowery Creek on some maps) was also used as a trapping 
site. This pond is almost completely choked with watershield 
(Brasenia schreberi ) with some water-lilies and pondweeds. There is 
a good growth of emergent plants at its northeast tip. 

The water flow through the creek was slow during the 
trapping period. The depth rarely exceeds 10 « , and the bottom is 
muddy everywhere. 

There are large numbers of maskinonge ( Esox masquinongy ) 
and also some snapping turtles (Chelvdra serpentina ) . both of which 
could affect duck breeding success. 



Nogies Creek is a popular duck hunting spot and good 
numbers of wood duck have been seen there for several years past, 
probably because the outboard motor has not set in due to the fish- 
ing restrictions . Wood duck and hooded merganser were by far the 
commonest wildfowlo Other species noted were in order of abundance 
black duck (Anas rubripes ) , mallard ( Anas platyrhvnchos ) , blue-winged 
teal ( Ana s discor s) , American merganser ( Mergus merganser ) and 
Green-winged teal ( Anas carolinensis ) „ 

Trapping Method s 

Eight folding traps of welded wire with a single chicken- 
wire throat, chicken wire bottom and netting roof were built. These 
followed the basic design of the trap used at the Upper Mississippi 
Refuge 1959-61 (Nelson) . Six of these were 6 V long by V high and 
3 ? wide, and two were 4* x 2 9 x 2 9 , so all were smaller than the 
American pattern,, This was done in the light of Mr, Catton 9 s 
experience with small traps in 1961 and undoubtedly it made for 
greater manoeuverability, especially in this case involving 90 per 
cent water transport under difficult conditions and with a single 
operator. But against this a number of birds were damaged during 
trapping. This problem will be discussed later. The trap throat 
followed Ne?.son 9 s recommendations (2j' ? - 3" wide) but in one or two 
cases had to be narrowed to 1" - the birds still forced their way 
in. 

Mr. Catton r 3 commend ed fLoat traps to avoid raccoon 
predation and all traps were placed on platforms attached to stakes 
in water up to 3 9 ^deep Platforms were made of chicken wire overlaid 
with burlap stretched on a wood frame. Stakes were cut long so that 
they gave support to the top corners of the traps as well. Four to 
eight inches was found to be a good water depth in the trap. There 
was no raccoon trouble and baiting was very simple, little bait 
being wasted en the mud bottom. The height of the platform could be 
adjusted but this led to difficulties if extreme fluctuations of the 
water level occurred. The water level at Nogies Creek can be control- 
led at the dam. 

Traps were sited where broods were found and moved if necessary 
to places where numbers of the birds appeared to be feeding. The 
Concession Pond site was in operation too late to catch the eclipse 
males there. It is felt that the operator should be able to get to 
within a few yards of a trap without being seen so cattails on 
shoreline features she aid be borne in mind when siting. A long open 
approach causes unnecessary commotion in the trap. The 4 ? traps were 
used to supplement the larger ones at the two best duck concentra- 
tions. 

Traps were visited twice a day: starting before sunrise 
and reaching the last trap just before darkness seemed best. A 
canoe was towed behind the scow Most traps were operated from this 
canoe using a dip net to get all birds quickly into a sack before 
banding them. Another small canoe was kept on Concession Pond. 
Non-flying broods were released simultaneously after banding. 



10 



Up to 12 black ducks were feeding at site No. 3 but blacks 
were only caught on two occasions, these birds seeming shy of the 
narrow entrances. Blacks were seen unsuccessfully trying to chase 
wood ducks from a trap site,. 



It looked as 
drove ducks from trap 
baiting and barley pro 
( Lepomis gibbosus ) ent 
of up to ten at a time 
usually sufficient to 
vibrations by constant 
ting bait on waterlily 
at the trap throat had 
preferred. 

Banding Data 



if rotting bait, particularly cracked corn, 
sites o Local hunters prefer barley for duck 
ved effective at Nogies Creeko Pumpkinseed 
ered traps which were set too deep in numbers 
, feeding on the barley. Even one fish is 
deter ducks from entering as it sets up noisy 
ly hitting the sides. Raising traps and put- 
leaves reduced this nuisance. Loose hog rings 
a similar effect and wire fastening was 



In this section the terms "Immature" and '-'Local" are 
used as outlined in the Banding Manual, "Juvenile" will be used 
to describe both of the above groups because Immatures and Locals 
are difficult to differentiate sometimes and it is considered that 
perhaps 75 per cent or more of birds classified Immature were in 
fact local birds, "Unknowns" were oversights not borderline cases. 



Banding Summary : 
Status (Age) Totals 
Adult 20 

Immature 45 
Local 32 

Unknown 3 



Sex 
Male Per cent Female Per cent Unknown 

17 [%y/o) 3 (15/*) 

29 [6k%) H in%) 2 {5%) 

19 ( 60) % 12 (37« 1 (3%) 



100 



65 



29 



Age ratio for all known age birds - 3° 6 youngs 1 adult. 

These figures seem to exaggerate the well established 
drop in the female component of the sex ratio from immature to adult. 
One brood on the creek which it was possible to count accurately 
on several occasions and most of which were banded consisted of 
nine males and only one famale. This exceptional figure accounts 
for a large part of the male preponderance in the juvenile division. 

Summary of repeats? No, of times caught No, of_Jbirds 



1 


45 




2 


3«n 


( 


3 


9 


k 55 birds caught 


4 


2 ( 


more than once. 


5 


3 




6 


l\ 


Total Repeats 94 


7 




| 


9 


1 J 


l 



- 11 - 

Age, sex and percentages of 55 repeats 

Adult Male 6 11% 

Adult Female 

Juvo Male 33 60% 

Juv. Female 8 14.5% 

Juv. Unknown $ 14*5% 

Total Repeats 55 

The writer cannot explain the remarkable number of 
repeating juvenile males, especially as the bird which allowed 
itself to be retrapped nine times in five days before being strongly 
discouraged was a juvenile female. 

Other ducks banded - 4 black ducks. 

Bands used were size six, as supplied by Ottawa in spite 
of the banding Manual's recommending size five which would seem 
more appropriate. Size five would also do for blue-winged teal 
caught in traps or hooded mergansers caught by flashlight. 

Estimate of Population 

It was not easy to count broods accurately, but the six 
seen averaged seven apiece. Trapping indicated at least two to three 
more broods on the creek. Twelve eclipse males were seen together on 
Concession Pond in July, Of the other birds, adult and immature 
trapped on the creek, several had probably come from neighbouring 
beaver ponds but some of the later captures could have come from 
further afield. Perhaps three quarters of the wood ducks present 
on Nogies Creek during the trapping period were banded. The popu- 
lation was estimated to be about 130 during July and August, 
Passage (movement) seemed to get under way in September, 

Injuries 

These were of three kinds; 1) Feet, 2) Head (or neck), 
3) Wing. Injuries in categories 1 or 2 were frequent but nearly 
always superficial and trifling. Toenails were lost and upper 
mandibles scraped on the wire, but one injury in the second category 
provided the only fatality. This was the first bird trapped. An 
osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ) hovering over the trap scared the birds, 
one of which pushed its head through the tightly stretches top 
netting, got caught on the welded wire corner, struggled, and twis- 
ted its neck so badly that it had to be killed. Recurrence of this 
was probably prevented by attaching the top netting at least four 
inches from the top of the welded wire sides, (See attached 
diagram) Another bird suffered head damage on the same occasion but 
was found to have healed up completely when trapped again over one 
month later. Another injury of this type was caused by the net 
breaking and a bird catching its throat in the same way - on this 
occasion it was possible to release it immediately and little damage 
was done but on several other occasions ducks were found to have 



= 12 



broken through the top nettin 
injuries,, As mentioned above 
caused by the frightened duck 
approach of predators or man, 
though some scrapes were wors 
forehead cuts. One very youn 
it jammed under the trap wall 
this bird was caught once aga 
ill effect So There is always 
weeks old in this way 



go This may have caused further 

, the commonest injury was to the bill, 

s dashing against the trap wall on the 

This was generally not serious 
e than others and there were two bad 
g duck so damaged its bill by getting 

that the "nail" had to be removed - 
in soon after, but too soon to judge 

a danger of drowning birds under six 



If injur:. 
a matter of taking 
being lucky, injuri 
On ten occasions 5 b 
made short laboured 
after August 27th r 
was never detected 
injured as one adul 
but 10 per cent is 
careful use of thes 
altogether, but it 
milar proportion of 
This risk might be 
ginning of Septembe 



es coming under the first two categories are 
every precaution, visiting traps regularly, and 
es in the third category are more problematical 
irds which should have been expected to fly freely 
flights and then dived. Seven were adult males 
three were advanced immature birds, A broken wing 
in the hand. Not all these birds may have been 
t swam some distance on release before taking off, 
a notable question mark and dictates extremely 
e traps. The 4 9 x 2 ? x 2» may be too small 
seemed satisfactory for juveniles; besides, a si- 
suspects was trapped in the 6 9 x 3 ? x 3 V size, 
lessened if trapping were to finish before the be- 



Cost.- 



E quipme nt 



Ao Operators Salary 

Bo Banding Operation (Maintenance) 

Bo Included. 

Two 100 » Rolls Welded Wire 

Bait (330 lbs. Barley, 50 lbs. whole corn, 

50 lbs. cracked) 
Hip waders 

100* Roll Chicken Wire 
Gasoline Can 
Dip Net 

Longnose,, Hogring, and wire cutting pliers 
Hogrings 3 boxes of 3-00 each 
Wire, soring, nails, staples, etc. 



$82S approx. 
200 approx. 



100 

15 
16 
12 
3 
3 
3 
1 
5 



Members of Lindsay District Fish and Wildlife Staff 
visited the project to give assistance at various times and their 
assistance is acknowledged, 



Notes; 

(i) Of the two brands of welded wire used, that obtained 
from the Frost Wire and Fence Company should be used in preference 
to wire bought from the Greening Wire and Perforated Metal Company 
which was twice as expensive and less satisfactory for trap adjust- 
ment purposes due to its having strands of thin wire close to one 
edge making it hard to use the hogrings and pliers in some situations 



13 



(ii) The netting should be dark coloured, J ?t mesh or less, 
stronger. 

(iii) A pair of heavy duty cutting pliers should be used 
in future for cutting welded wire and several trapsite jobs. 

Conclusion 

The metnod of trapping outlined above is satisfactory for 
a single operator without road transport at Nogies Creek. A 
greater number of wood duck could perhaps be banded by an operator 
with a car working over a larger area from early June onwards. 
This would necessitate reconnaissance of likely spots early in the 
breeding season. 

However, the Nogies Creek project should be continued as 
the sample is a good one and more would be learned if it was followed 
up. Banding further afield should be undertaken if possible but 
not at the expense of the Nogies Creek effort. A bird in the hand 
is worth two in the bush. 

Literature References (Minimum requirement during banding) 



Addy, C. E. et al 1956. 

Anonymous 1961. 
Carney, S. & A. Geis. 

Fassett, Norman C. I960. 



Gollop, J. B. & W. H. 
Marshall, 1954. 



Kortright, F. H. 1943. 

Nelson, H. K. 1962. 

Peterson, R. T. 1962. 
Pough, R. H. 1951. 



Guide to Waterfowl Banding, U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, 

Maryland . 

Bird Banding Manual. 

"Preliminary Keys. Age and Sex of 
Duck Wings". 

A Manual of Aquatic Plants. Univ. 
of Wisconsin Press. 



"Guide for Aging Duck Broods in 
the Field". Mississippi Flyway 
Council Technical Section. Mimeo- 
graph copy. 

The Ducks, Geese, & Swans of North 
America. The American Wildlife 
Institute, Washington, D. C. 

"Wood Duck Banding on National 
Wildlife Refuges - Region 3". 
Mimeograph draft. 

A Field Guide to the Birds. Houghton 
Mifflin Co., Boston. 



Audubon Water Bird Guide 
& Co., New York. 



Doubleday 



14 




Floo: 



I A 



_^/ 



Cross-section of trap showing device to stop ducks 
getting head caught over sides« 




STAT 



• w ■ 

REPORT ON WATERFOWL BANDING PROJECT COMPLETED AT ARM 
LAKE, GERALDTON DISTRICT, SUMMER OF 1962. 

by 
B. H. Gibson, Biologist 



Abstract 

For the fourth consecutive year, a duck banding 
program has been carried on at Ann Lake in the 
Geraldton District. The station was operated from 
August 15 to September 8, 1962. Pond ducks formed 
92 per cent of the 136 ducks banded. Six species 
were represented in the captures. There were 70 
blacks (51.4%), 41 mallards (30.1%), 9 baldpates 
(6.8%), 7 lesser scaup (5.1%), 5 green-winged teal 
(3.7%), and 4 American goldeneyes (3.0%). Two 
returns of ducks banded at Arm Lake in 1960, one 
foreign retrap and 17 repeats were also recorded. 
One circular trap with a funnel entrance, and three 
of the conventional lily pad design were employed 
and baited with wheat and corn. 



Introduction 

Arm Lake, which is situated approximately 25 lineal miles 
northeast of Geraldton, was chosen for the fourth consecutive year 
as the site of the 1962 duck banding project conducted in the 
Geraldton District. Latitude and longitude of the trapping site 
are SO^lW and Se^'OO", respectively. 

Arm Lake is a small (197 acres) dystrophic lake, with a 
thick layer of organic matter on the bottom. Wild rice (Zizania 
aqua tic a ) is abundant, covering 75 per cent of the surface area of 
the lake and with the yellow water lily (Nuphar sp.) forms most of 
the emergent vegetation. The principal submergent is coon- tail 
(Ceratophyllum sp.). Wild rice is more abundant this year than it 
has been in recent years, and provides an attractive lure to both 
local and migrant waterfowl. There is a great deal of annual variation 
in rice abundance, chiefly the result of fluctuating water levels. 
White birch (Be tula papyrifera ). poplar (Populus tremuloides ), cedar 
(Thuja occiden talis ) and black spruce (Picea mar i an a ) are the dominant 
tree species found bordering the lake. Also occurring in lesser 
abundance are alder (Alnus sp.) and black ash (Fraxinus nigra ). 



- 17 - 
Purpose 

The duck banding operation at Arm Lake in 1962 was per- 
formed upon a co-operative request from the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service and the Department* It is part of a program to 
encourage the banding of waterfowl in Canada. The goal of the 
banding program is to band as many waterfowl as possible during 
August and the first week of September, in areas where fall con- 
centrations exist, with attention focused on blacks and mallards. 
From the pre- season bandings, data are made available that will help 
in interpreting the age ratio information acquired from wing surveys 
carried out in the United States. Another aim of the program is to 
be able to determine variations in mortality rates for waterfowl 
between various ages and harvest areas. 

Method 

On August 13, trap number 1 was set up in shallow water 
in a bay at the west end of Arm Lake. This was the same site 
used in previous years. (See location on the map). The trap was 
circular, with a 12 foot diameter, and was constructed of spot welded 
wire, with 2 inch by 4 inch mesh. The height of the trap was five 
feet. The trap was anchored with eight foot long aluminum alloy 
rods of 3/8" diameter at several points (see diagram). The funnel 
entrance was approximately 18 inches wide on the exterior of the 
trap; the funnel extended three feet towards the centre of the trap 
where it narrowed to six inches. The water depth at the funnel side 
of the trap was 18 inches to two feet, and one foot at the removal 
door side. Large mesh, cotton netting was used to cover the trap to 
prevent the ducks from escaping. The inside entrance and the 
immediate vicinity of the trap were baited heavily with approximately 
75 pounds of a wheat and whole kernel corn mixture. 

On August 21, trap No. 2 was installed and baited. Traps 
No. 3 and No. 4 were located and baited on August 22 and 28 respect- 
ively. All three of these traps were of the conventional lily pad 
design with entrances approximately six inches wide. Because of 
the 2 inch by 2 inch mesh in these traps, they were more rigid than 
trap No. 1 and needed little additional support. Old impounding 
gear netting of one inch mesh was used to cover one trap $fo. 4) and 
discarded nylon gill netting of five inch mesh was used for covering 
traps No. 2 and No. 3. 

Traps Nos. 2, 3, 4 were all located near shore in shallow 
water varying from one to two feet in depth at the duck entrance, 
to eight inches at the removal door side of the trap. The duck 
entrance faced toward the centre of the lake in all traps. This 
placed the removal door in shallow water which facilitated our 
entrance and the removal of the captured waterfowl. Traps No. 3 



-f .. 



i I 



• ■ 



.'I 



- 18 - 

and No. 4 had diameters of 10 feet, while No. 2 trap was eight feet 
in diameter. Traps Nos. 2, 3, 4 were anchored with "two by two" 
wooden stakes because of a shortage of aluminum alloy rods as used 
in trap No. 1. 

Traps No. 2 and No. 3 were placed initially at what were 
believed to be strategic locations on Arm Lake and remote from 
trap No. 1. This was expected to give a wide coverage of the lake. 
By separating the traps by at least 200 yards, it was felt that 
there would be less disturbance of the ducks in adjacent traps 
when removal of the birds was attempted. However, after several 
days of attempting to lure the ducks, unsuccessfully, to these 
traps, traps Nos. 2 and 3 were relocated in their final positions on 
August 27 near trap No. 1, with a distance of 30 feet separating 
each of these three traps. Trap No. 4 was placed approximately 
100 yards north of the other three traps on August 28. 

For the first time, since the inception of the duck band- 
ing project in 1959, two men were employed continuously for the 
duration of the project. This simplified removal of the ducks. 
Both men would enter the traps. One man would capture the ducks 
with a short handled landing net; the other man placed them in a 
burlap sack. No more than five ducks were placed in a sack because 
of possible injury being inflicted on those on the bottom. The 
ducks were transported to the campsite and immediately aged, sexed 
and banded with a standard metal leg band and then were released. 

The cloacal method as outlined by Kortright (1953) was 
used in aging and sexing the waterfowl. As a matter of interest, 
and as an additional check, secondary aids as per Kortright were 
used. 

Observations and results 

The traps were checked only in the morning during the first 
two weeks of the project. From August 31 until the project was 
terminated, the traps were visited in the morning and again in the 
evening, approximately an hour before dark, because captures were 
made in the late afternoon on several occasions. 

Trap No. 1 captured the first ducks on August 18. Traps 
Nos. 2 and 3 did not attract ducks at all and finally were relocated 
beside trap No. 1 on August 27. Within two days they were capturing 
ducks. Trap No. 4 was installed on August 28 and captured ducks by 
August 29. 

Trap No. 1 was by far the best of the traps in capturing 
waterfowl. With its 12 foot diameter, it was the largest of the 
traps. Just why it should capture 70 per cent of the ducks is 
difficult to ascertain. From the very start of the program, however, 
the ducks appeared to prefer the bay where trap No. 1 was situated. 



- 19 - 

Very few ducks were seen near trap No, 2 and No. 3 in their former 
positions, nor was there any sign that ducks had utilized the grain 
near them. It is apparent that ducks cannot be drawn away from the 
well established feeding area in the bay near trap No. 1. For this 
reason capture attempts in the future should be concentrated in 
bays or other areas that are used regularly by waterfowl as 
feeding and resting areas. 

We were at first hesitant to locate the other traps 
near trap No. 1. This, however, was attempted because trap No. 1 
was the only trap capturing ducks. Our main fear was that while 
removing ducks in one trap, ducks in nearby traps might be injured 
by their excitability and tendency to "fling" themselves at the 
wire of the trap. We found, however, that the ducks in adjacent 
traps remained unperturbed until their trap was approached and 
entered. 

The large mesh nylon gill net used to cover traps No. 2 
and No. 3 was found to be entirely unsuitable. In three instances, 
ducks were found hanging, with their heads caught in the meshes of 
the netting. No ducks died, however, from this cause. No similar 
difficulty was experienced with the trap in which one inch mesh 
impounding gear net was used, and in future only this type of net 
will be utilized to cover the traps. 

We also found that the aluminum alloy rods were far 
superior to wooden stakes for anchoring the traps. They were 
more easily driven into the soft bottom and held better than stakes, 
as well as being less conspicuous to the waterfowl. 

In this year's banding project, mallards and blacks formed 
81 per cent of the 136 ducks banded. The following table indicates 
the age and sex composition of the ducks banded. 



Adults 


Immatures 


Species 


Males Females 


Unsexed 


Males 


Femal 


es 


Unsexed 


Total 


Percent 


Black 


9 


5 


2 


24 


24 




6 


70 


51.4 


Mallard 


1 


3 


1 


19 


17 




- 


41 


30.1 


Baldpate 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




9 


9 


6.8 


Lesser Scaup 


- 


1 


= 


3 


3 




- 


7 


5.1 


Green-winged 




















teal 


- 


-> 


~ 


1 


1 




3 


5 


3.7 


American 




















goldeneye 










4 




■■ 


4 


3.0 




136 


100.0 



- 20 - 

In addition to the 136 ducks banded in 1962, there were 
two returns of ducks banded at Arm Lake in 1960. One was an adult 
female mallard; the other was an adult male black. Both were 
juveniles in 1960. One foreign retrap was made, this being an 
adult male mallard. Seventeen repeats were encountered from the 
136 banded, with mallards and blacks accounting for 16 of these. 
The other repeat was by a green-winged teal. 

Summary and conclusions 

1. During the summer of 1962 a Duck Banding Station was operated 
at Arm Lake, in the Geraldton District, with 111 or 81 per cent 
of the ducks banded being blacks and mallards. 

2. Arm Lake appears to be the most suitable location for waterfowl 
trapping and banding, in the Geraldton District, 

3. Four traps were used in capturing and banding the total of 
136 ducks. It is difficult to understand why trap No. 1 with 
its funnel entrance captured 70 per cent of the ducks. It is 
doubtful that the type of entrance i.e., funnel versus the 
lilypad type as was used in traps Nos. 2, 3, 4 is the explana- 
tion. It is more likely that trap No, 1 was from the start, 
in a more attractive location than the remaining three traps, 
and this could account for its capturing more ducks. Experi- 
menting with both types of traps on a larger scale next year 
might reveal if one type has greater utility for our purposes. 

4. Experience acquired this year indicates that attempts to 
attract ducks to traps in areas where they do not normally 
feed is futile, even in the same lake. This was proven in 
Arm Lake. Traps should only be placed in locations where 
ducks congregate in a lake. 

5. The "two by two" wire used in traps Nos. 2, 3, 4 is better than 
the "two by four" wire used in trap No, 1, because of its greater 
rigidity which facilitates the erection of the trap. 

Recommendations 

1. Although the 136 ducks banded this year was not a large number 
we believe that the project should be continued and possibly 
expanded next year to include more traps and other lakes, if 
suitable sites can be found. 

2. Experiments should be conducted with the lily pad and funnel 
entrance traps to ascertain if either exhibits greater use- 
fulness in capturing waterfowl. 



- 21 - 

3. Experience acquired this year indicates that morning and evening 
checks of the traps, and the removal of any ducks captured is 
best. In this way, injury to ducks is usually lessened. A 
larger daily catch is often assured. 

4. In future years, experiments could be conducted with traps 

of square as well as circular design, and of various sizes, in 
an attempt to capture a larger number of ducks. Some of the 
traps could be set in shallow water of six Inches or less in 
depth. This might increase the number of captures. Large 
traps, with two or more duck entrances, could also be used, 
in an effort to increase the number of waterfowl captured. 

Acknowledgments 

I would like to thank Conservation Officers, F. Cornell, J. Gow, 
H. Kodila and Forest Ranger, E. Campeau for their part in the 
duck banding project. Each of these men took an interested 
part in the program for a period of from three to ten days. 
The entire project was aided by their constructive criticisms. 

References 

Kortright, F. H. 1953. Ducks, Geese and Swans of North 
-America. The Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, Pa. pp. 31=37. 

Hochbaum, H. A. 1956. Traits and Traditions of Waterfowl. 
The University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 



- 22 - 



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- 25 - 
SHARP-TAIL AND RUFFED GROUSE SPRING SURVEY AND BROOD COUNTS, 

FORT FRANCES DISTRICT, 1962 



John Go Miller 
Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

Eighteen new Sharp-tailed Grouse dancing grounds were 
located utilizing aircraft,. It was learned that the 
packed down areas of the dancing grounds were more 
easily seen in raid-morning or mid-afternoon. The 
size of the dancing ground seen from the air varied 
directly with the number of birds utilizing the area. 
Ground counts showed no apparent increase or decrease 
in the population. Average size of broods indicated 
no significant mortality due to heavy spring rains 
although there were indications that some renesting 
may have occurred. Brood count summaries are given for 
the Atikokan and Fort Frances areas. 



Sharp-tail Dancing Ground Counts - .aerial Survey 

During the first week of March while checking known danc- 
ing grounds on snowshoes it was noted that the packed down area in 
the snow was very visible. We decided to try to locate dancing grounds 
in the farming area from an aircraft. 

Our first attempt was made on a bright clear morning. The 
dancing grounds were clearly visible. These were known dancing 
grounds. In further flights, made during mid-day it was found the 
dancing grounds were less visible. It was then noted that with the 
sun at the proper angle (either mid-morning or mid-afternoon) the 
imprint became shadowed and thus more visible. In early morning 
flights with the sun at a low angle it was found that there were 
too many shadows from surrounding trees, buildings, etc. It was 
also found that snow conditions entered the picture. Following 
a wind when the snow was waved dancing grounds were not visible. 

On a clear day with the sun at the proper angle, flying at 
a height of 800 ft. dancing grounds could be spotted from a distance 
of approximately three or more miles. In approximately half a days 
flying time with conditions right, eighteen new grounds were located. 
It is interesting to note that three of these new dancing grounds 
were located on muskeg. Previously, we thought the birds did not 
utilize muskeg for this purpose. 

Ground Counts 

From actual counts made on the ground it was noted that 
the size of the dancing grounds seen from the air varied directly 
with the number of birds utilizing the area. Possibly with more 
experience we will be able to determine the population from one year 
to the next without actual ground counts. 



- 26 - 

With this new knowledge we hope to be able to map all 
dancing grounds in the farming area next spring. We should be 
able to get a fairly accurate estimate of the total population., 
We will then have a better picture with which to carry out 
management programs. 

As in the previous two years actual ground counts were done 
on dancing grounds in Carpenter Township Because of circumstances 
this year counts were done only in early March. No birds were 
counted on two of these dancing grounds that had previously been 
used. Although no birds were observed, there were indications of 
tracks in the snow that the odd bird had performed there. Both of 
these dancing grounds were located on abandoned farm areas that 
have grown up heavily with poplar. Perhaps the density of the 
poplar has now made these areas unsuitable c It was noted that on 
a dancing ground in a adjacent township within half a mile of one 
of the above grounds the population showed a significant increase. 
There is the possibility that the birds from the abandoned ground 
moved onto this one. A few perhaps instinctively went back to the 
old dancing ground and thus accounted for the few signs of dancing 
observed on it. It is also possible that the counts were made 
too early in the spring and for some reason the birds on the two 
mentioned grounds had not started to come to them constantly. 

I960 1961 1962 



Dancing ground j 


t 1 


- 


24 


IS 


19 




2 


- 


11 


14 


nil 




3 


- 


IS 


15 


17 




4 


- 


14 


11 


nil 




5 


- 


9 


14 


11 




6 


"* 


12 


10 


11 



Although the above figures again show a decrease, the 
two abandoned grounds lower the total of birds counted. On the four 
dancing grounds which birds were actually counted no significant 
increase or decrease is noted. Next year we will not use the above 
six dancing grounds in Carpenter Township for our counts. We plan 
to pick the six largest dancing grounds in the District which are 
located in areas which are currently under agricultural development. 
In this way condition of the area should remain constant. By choos- 
ing the six largest grounds we should get a better index with which 
to note any population change. The six grounds will be divided 
between two men and in this way more evenly distribute the work 
load at a time of year when other commitments usually interfere. 

Ruffed and Sharp-tailed Grouse Brood Counts 

With ruffed grouse no particular effort was needed to 
obtain brood counts since they 'are often observed along roadsides. 
In the past it was not possible to get a significant brood count 
of sharp-tails in this manner. Therefore a special effort was 
made to find sharp-tail broods in the fields. Only by using a dog 
was it possible to locate enough broods to make the time spent 
worthwhile. Even with this special effort it is felt that the 
number of broods counted is not sufficient to draw any sound 
conclusions. 



- 27 - 

In the future with the co-operation of all Department 
personnel, it is hoped that a sufficient brood count of ruffed 
grouse may be obtained to form some conclusions. 

To obtain a sufficient number of sharp-tail broods it 
would take an enormous number of man-hours to make it possible. 
We feel that this amount of effort is impractical and that spring 
dancing ground counts provide a sufficient index on which to base 
hunting regulations. 

This June we experienced a heavy rainfall of 3-93 inches. 
We feared that this would cause a heavy mortality rate of the young 
chicks of both species, but our brood counts did not confirm this. 
This perhaps points out a weakness in brood counts. We are counting 
hens with their broods but this gives us no indication of the number 
of hens which may have been unsuccessful in rearing their brood. 

In late July and the beginning of August some broods still 
in down were observed. This seems to indicate that renesting in 
both species did occur. 

In future if brood counts are desirable we feel that not 
only a count of chicks should be made but some age classification 
as well. In this way we could determine if any renesting occurs 
and to what extent. 



Brood Count Summary 









Atikokan 








Numb 


sr of Complete 


Total 


Average Young 


Ruffed Grouse 




Brood 


s 


Young 
17 


Per Brood 


May 




2 




8.5 


June 




6 




47 


7.8 


July 




5 




32 


6.4 


Aug. 




7 




31 


4.4 


Sept. 




3 




17 


5.7 


Spruce Grouse 












May 




nil 








June 




1 




5 


5 


July. 




nil 








Aug. 




2 




7 


3.5 


Sept. 




nil 









Sharp-tail 



nil 



Fort Frances 



Ruffed Grouse 



May 


nil 


June 


36 


July 


45 


Aug. 


46 


Sept. 


25 



222 


6.1 


271 


6.02 


289 


6.3 


156 


6.2 









£Q - 








Brood Count 


Summary (Cont'd) 














Fort 


Frances 








Spruce Grouse 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 


Number of Complete 
Broods 


Total 
Young 

17 
16 
IB 
11 


Ave 
Per 


rage Young 
Brood 


4 
4 
5 
3 




4.02 
4 

3.6 
3.7 


Sharp-tail 














May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 




46 
59 

33 




314 
413 
395 
240 




6.8 
7.0 
6.9 
6.3 


Conclusions 















Taking into consideration sharp-tail dancing ground counts, 
brood counts and general observations during the summer months no 
marked decrease is apparent in spite of heavy spring rainfalls. The 
ruffed grouse population as well appears to show no real decrease, 
except possibly in the Atikokan area where reports indicate visual 
observations are down. 



Hunting success in the area west of Fort Frances should 
be on a par with last year. 



- 29 - 
RUFFED GROUSE DRUM AND BROOD COUNTS, KENORA DISTRICT 

1962 

by 
W. H. Charlton 
District Biologist 



Abstract 

An initial attempt was made to carry out ruffed grouse 
drumming counts during the spring of 1962. It was 
planned to run six road transects on three designated 
days. However, the uniformity of these counts with 
regard to the time element was disrupted by inclement 
weather. Forty-eight drummings were recorded at the 
seventy- four listening stations. Weather conditions 
were determined to be the big influencing factor in 
the incidence of grouse drummings. Brood counts were 
made by conservation officers for the fourth consecutive 
year. Thirty- six broods were sighted, having a total 
of 178 young, with an average brood size of 5.0 
grouse. These brood counts have remained relatively 
constant over a four year period with a high average 
brood size of 6.1 in 1958 and a low of 5.0 this year. 



Drum Counts 

Ruffed grouse drum counts were carried out this spring 
for the first time in Kenora District. Little information is avail- 
able on grouse drum counts and any information obtained must be 
viewed skeptically until a great deal more is known about the 
ruffed grouse and its behaviour. It is not clearly understood what 
motivates a male grouse to drum, or with what regularity these 
drummings take place. On four different occasions officers indicated 
they felt two drummings, heard within the three minute listening 
period, had come from the same bird. Dorney (1958) in a study 
carried out in Wisconsin mentions a male grouse that did not drum 
one year, but resumed normal drumming activity in the following 
year. 

Even though there are many variables in grouse drum counts, 
the greatest of which appears to be weather, it was decided to conduct 
the counts with a view towards determining their feasibility and 
value. As there presently does not appear to be a relationship 
between the juvenile: adult female ratios and hunter success it has 
been suggested that more effort be put into pre- season study and less 
into collecting data on the hunt. Also the indications that grouse 
are not truly cyclic in their fluctuations reduces the value of data 



- 30 - 

collected on the hunt. With the rapid fluctuations that occur in 
population size little actual management is possible. However, it is 
necessary to keep abreast of changes in population and be able to 
predict accurately to the hunter, the calibre of hunting that may be 
expected. This can best be done through pre-season study. 

Procedure 

Unfortunately in planning to co-ordinate the study as to 
time for all officers throughout the District, one big factor was 
overlooked. Adverse weather set in and only two officers were able 
to complete the survey as outlined. Each officer was to select a 
sideroad at least ten miles long and to mark out a minimum of ten 
stations, one mile apart. Drum counts were to be made by all six 
officers at approximately 6 a.m. on the mornings of May 17, 22 and 
24. The officer was to stop at the check point and wait quietly for 
30 seconds. He then was to record all drummings heard in the follow- 
ing three minute period and proceed to the next check point. 
Detailed information was to be kept on weather conditions and comments 
were asked for. It was hoped that trends or counts made at one area 
of investigation might be comparable with observations made at the 
study areas in different parts of the District. However, rains set 
in and only two of the six men were successful in carrying out checks 
on the suggested days. All data were recorded on a standard form, 
(Appendix I) 

Results 

Results of the two officers who were successful in carrying 
out the counts on the prescribed days showed a marked similarity. 
May 17 was a cool rainy morning and no drummings were heard during 
the adverse weather. However, in the Minaki area three drummings 
were heard later in the morning as the weather began to clear. On 
May 22 the morning was cool and overcast with light east winds and 
both officers recorded an increase in drummings heard. (Minaki 7, 
Kenora 1). On May 24 the weather was quite similar except the wind 
was from the west estimated by both officers at 5 m.p.h. There was 
a marked increase in drummings reported by both men. (Minaki 13, Kenora 
4). It is felt that this variation is due to weather conditions. 
The only area where a marked difference in weather occurred on diff- 
erent days was along the Shoal Lake road. On May 18 six drummings were 
heard at 11 stations. This was a clear morning, temperature 50°F and 
wind from the south at 3 m.p.h. On May 22 over the same route only 
one drumming was heard. That morning was overcast and wind from 
the east at an estimated 10 m.p.h. 

Dorney (op. cit) emphasizes the importance of weather in 
obtaining grouse drum counts and states that there are only about 
four days during a normal spring when counts should be carried out. 
He also adds that these should take place during a 7 to 15 day 



- 31 - 

period before major leaf development has occurred. North Bay District 
carried out drum counts in 1961 for the first time. Marked variations 
on counts occurred over the same transects but no information is 
given on weather conditions (Gage, 1962). These counts also were 
taken over an extended period which Dorney (op.cit) points out would 
tend to bias an index upward during the early counts and reduce it 
during late counts after trees have their foliage. 

Drum counts appear to have little value unless conducted 
under defined weather conditions. Initially they should be conducted 
in conjunction with other population studies, in the same area, to 
varify results. Dorney (op. cit) feels that drum counts provide 
valid and quick indices to population of breeding males. Independent 
studies were carried out to determine actual population size and range 
of audibility in that particular area. Their drumming index compared 
favourably with population estimates arrived at by deer yard crews who 
recorded all grouse flushed and distance covered. 

Number of Drummings Recorded 



Area 



No. of 
Stations 



May 17 



May 18 May 22 



May 24 



May 25 



May 29 



Minaki 15 

Kenora 12 

Sioux Narrows 10 

|onss . 11 

Drryden 15 

Shoal Lake 11 



3 








6 



7 

1 
2 
0** 



13 
4 
5* 



* Transect run in evening - 



** Rain reduced count to four 
stations 



Weather Conditions 



Date 



General Outlook 



Temp. U F 



Wind (m.p.h.)* 



May 17 
18 
22 
24 
25 
29 



Overcast Rain 
Clear Sunny 
Overcast Some rain 
Overcast 
Clear Sunny 
Overcast 



58 
42 
46 
45 



58° 



64° 
60° 
50° 
48° 



South to 3 
South 3 to 10 
East 3 to 10 
West 5 
South 5 
South-east 5=10 



*Wind velocities are estimates only 



~ 32 - 

An evening count carried out in Sioux Narrows on May 24 
resulted in an increase of three drunmings over the morning count 
of May 22. However, weather conditions were more favourable on the 
24th than on the 22nd. There is evidence in the data that winds 
from the east may be a factor in reducing grouse drummings. 

It would appear that drumming transects should only be 
run on clear days when little or no wind exists. Requirements as 
to weather conditions should be established if drum counts are to be 
carried out in future years. 

Field notes have been included in the report on file at 
Kenora District office as it was felt these notes may be of additional 
value at a later date when more is known about drumming grouse. 

Brood Counts 

Ruffed grouse brood counts were again recorded by all 
conservation officers as they encountered birds during the course 
of their regular duties. Although an all out effort was to be put 
into obtaining information on grouse broods there was a reduction 
from last year in the number of broods sighted. In 1961, forty-nine 
broods were recorded while this year thirty - six broods were seen. 
The period of time during which sightings were recorded was also 
expended three weeks this year to September 1 rather than the 
August 10 deadline of a yea" ago. This was to try and provide 
additional information on the grouse population prior to the hunt. 

Table I - Ruffed Grouse Brood Counts by Month 



Month 


No. of Erocds 


Total Young 


Av. per Brood 


June 
July 
August 

TOTAL 


9 
10 
17 


42 
53 

83 


5.2 

5.3 
4.9 


36 


178 


5.0 



The average brood size of 5.0 is a decrease from 1961 when 
the average brood size was 6.0 young. Rainfall during June and July 
was well above average and this reduced the average brood size in 
all likelihood. 



- 33 - 
Table II - Annual Comparison of Brood Counts since 1959 



Year 


No. of Broods 


Total Young 


Av. Brood Size 


1959 
1960 
1961 
1962 


14 

19 
49 
36 


86 
100 
294 

178 


6.1 
5.3 
6.0 
5.0 



Considering the small size of the samples there is little 
significant difference in the average brood size over the four year 
period. Larger samples obtained in 1961 and 1962 indicate that a 
slight decrease in population has taken place during this period. 
While drum counts were not conclusive and cannot be compared with 
other data they did indicate a reasonable amount of drumming acti- 
vity throughout the District. On the basis of this information it 
is felt that the 1962 hunt will not vary greatly from the 1961 
season and fair to good hunting can be expected throughout the 
District. 



Many verbal complaints have been received of late about the 
decline in grouse hunting. District facts and figures, however, have 
not borne out these reports. It is felt that with a limited number 
of suitable roads and an increase in the number of district hunters 
it is becoming necessary to leave the roads and enter the bush for 
the best hunting. 

Acknowledgments 

A note of thanks is extended to all District Conservation 
Officers who carried out the field work on both the drum count and 
the brood surveys. 

References 

Dorney, Robert S. et al. 1958. An Evaluation of Ruffed Grouse 
Drumming Counts. Journal of Wildlife Mgt. Vol. 22 (1): 35-40. 

Gage, J. F. 1962. Ruffed Grouse Report - North Bay District 1961. 
Resource Management Report No. 63 - May. p - 30. 

*Schenk, C. F. Grouse in the Kenora District 1959. 

*Collins, V. B. Kenora District Ruffed Grouse Brood Count 1960. 

*Charlton, W. H. Kenora District Ruffed Grouse Brood Count 1961. 

*Kenora District Reports - Office Files 



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- 35 - 

REFORESTATION 
ON SHALLOW SOILS HERE AND ABROAD 



by 
E. P. Edson 
Forest Extension Officer 

Abstract 

In the 25 townships of the Napanee Division, Tweed For- 
est District, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, 
there are an estimated 120,000 acres of "critical" areas, 
i.e. fields and pastures further deteriorating because 
of progressive wind and rain erosion and because of 
overgrowing with weeds and weed trees. 

On the north-east shores of the Adriatic Sea there is a 
similar, though larger, limestone area of waste land 
(Karst), where for more than 100 years reforestation on 
shallow soils has been carried out. 

In this short resume an attempt is made to describe the 
main features of the Karst amelioration operations, because 
it is felt that the similar basic conditions might provide 
us with some information of what we could expect here if 
a large-scale reclamation programme were devised by the 
Government . 



REFORESTATION ON SHALLOW SOILS 
(Napanee Division — Tweed District) 

On the north-east shore of Lake Ontario (southern townships 
of Hastings, Lennox and Addington, and Frontenac Counties) and 
in Prince Edward County (peninsula), there are 25 townships in 
the Napanee Division of the Tweed District, and in all of these 
we find large areas where repeated cuts, forest fires and subse- 
quent erosion have thinned the soil to such a degree that even 
pasturing is of little value. Much of such land has been aban- 
doned, and in most of the fields shrubs, such as Sumac ( Rhus 
typhina ) , Prickly Ash ( Xantoxylum americanum ) , Common Juniper 
( Juniperus communis ) and weed trees such as scrubby Balsam Poplar 
( FopulusTalsamif era ) , Aspen ( Populus .^.randidentata ) , Ironwood 
( Ostrya virginiana ) . Bur or Scrub Oak ( Quercus cerris ) , are estab- 
lishing themselves. In other places (notably near Kingston and 
Picton) even areas of better quality land are wholly or partially 
unused as the farmers have accepted other employment; and there 
also the shrubs and weed trees have begun to invade the fields. 
Some say this inferior vegetation will provide shelter for young 
spruce, pine and other valuable species, and that eventually a 
forest will grow there again by itself. However, this process 
may take a hundred or more years, and even then the forest will be 
in most cases (judging from experience) a poor producer of good 
timber. 

On the lands bordering Lake Ontario other important factors 
to be considered besides timber production are: re-establishment 



- 36 - 

of water table levels, the aesthetic values of the rapidly expand- 
ing tourist areas and wind protection. 

Most of these critical areas which are still deteriorating 
in the Napanee Division are based on limestone bedrock with the 
depth of soil rarely exceeding one foot. A rough estimate of 
these areas, derived from ocular observation, discussions with 
farmers and local officials and by studying aerial photographs, 
is as follows : 

Frontenac County - not less than 50,000 acres 
Hastings County - not less than 15,000 acres 
Lennox and Addington County - not less than 30,000 acres 
Prince Edward County - not less than 25,000 acres. 

Total - 120,000 acres. 

The townships with the highest acreages of poor lands are: 

Frontenac County - Portland, Loughborough, Storrington, 

Pittsburg 

Hastings County - Tyendinaga, part Rawdon 

Lennox & Addington - Camden, Richmond, part Ernestown 

Prince Edward County - North Marysburg, South Marysburg, 

Hillier, Sophiasburg. 

While considering the geological, hydrographic , climatic, 
and ecological situation of the land in the Napanee Division, 
our attention was drawn to the areas on the northeastern shores 
of the Adriatic Sea (Karst ), where several centuries ago the land 
was covered by reportedly beautiful oak forests and pine, balsam 
and spruce stands. These forests were cut mainly in the 16th and 
17th century by Venetians or by their suppliers and the timber was 
used for the building of ships and for piles (oak) on the lagoon 
islands of the City of Venice. 

After the initial logging the farmers never permitted the 
forests to recuperate, as they were in dire need of timber and 
firewood, and as they also started to use the cut-over areas as 
pasture for cattle, sheep and, worst of all, for goats. 

In the early 19th century, the limestone Karst lands (judging 
from old drawings and descriptions) looked surprisingly similar to 
the stoney plateaus of Prince Edward County and southern parts of 
Frontenac County. There also, in the past, rivers and creeks 
carried enough water to power numerous simple sawmills (they were 
called "Venetians") and today only stone foundations remain beside 
dry river-beds. In Prince Edward County not a single mill (a possi- 
ble exception — Consecon Creek) could be powered today by water, 
except for a few weeks in the spring, although 100 years ago there 
ware 35 or 36 sawmills and many grist mills powered by local streams, 
most of the year. 



- 37 = 

Wind and rain erosion deprived the Karst region of the 
North Adriatic of much of the soil. We find in Prince Edward 
County and some other areas of the Napanee Division many simi- 
larly eroded pastures and abandoned fields, where one, two or 
three generations ago the farmers were able to plough the land 
and grow good crops. 

Conditions on Karst and the shores of Lake Ontario (Napanee 
Division) are similar in several other respects: 

Geology, Soils 

On Karst, as well as in most parts of Napanee Division, we 
find limestone tablelands broken by steep escarpments and rubble- 
strewn fields. Most of the land in the Napanee Division is situa- 
ted between 250 and 700 feet above sea-level, while the main 
Karst reforested plateaus reach from 200 feet to 1500 feet above 
sea-level. 

A heavy loam, or clay loam, is found both on the miserable 
Karst fields, and the shallow fields in the Napanee Division. 
There are a few sandy patches and plenty of fields with boulders 
and rocks on Karst which make planting difficult. The depth of 
soil is rarely over one foot, and in most places it is less, due 
to longer action of wind and rain on the denuded land. There are 
few acid sites on Karst, and in many places Ca C03 contents are 50$ 
or more . 

In places where no soil was left and where forest establish- 
ment was needed badly enough, soil was carried to the planting 
sites. 

Climate, Precipitation, Winds 

The temperatures most of the year are comparable, although 
winters here are colder, and the July and August mean monthly 
temperatures are also lower. However, there are short periods 
of intense cold on Karst in January and February with 15 and even 
30 below zero (Fahrenheit). 

The precipitation here is somewhat lower as a yearly aver- 
age, but the summer months are drier on Karst (June, July, August, 
average .5" each) . 

In both places winds are strong and blow most of the year, 
and there are sudden frosts due to changes of wind direction and 
intensity. 

Tree Cover 

Junipers ( Juniperus communis ) a variety of Hazel ( Corvlus 
avellana ) . varieties of thornbushes ( Prunus Spinosa ) Ironwood 
(OstryaT , scrubby oaks ( Quercus cerris ) cover large areas of Karst 
fields , just as they do in ever-increasing numbers here on aban- 
doned fields. 



- 38 - 

A SHORT RESUiME OF REFORESTATION EXPERIENCES ON KARST 

Beginning of Planting 

In 1343 the Municipality of Trieste (North-east Adriatic and 
until 191^ part of Austrian Monarchy) seeded about ten acres of 
fields exposed to north-east winds with Pinus nigra , Robinia and 
Castanea dantata (Sweet Chestnut) with little success. A few years 
later they tried again in a different place, unsuccessfully again. 
In 1359, however, Pinus nigra seedlings were planted and the sur- 
vival was good, and so the local Forestry Association in 1365 
petitioned the Central Government in Vienna to provide some funds 
for forest research and for systematic reforestation work on Karst 
plateaus in the Trieste hinterland. 

In 1869 the government appointed a District Forestry Inspec- 
tor and three foresters in Trieste, who the same year founded three 
tree nurseries for conifers as well as for deciduous trees. 

However, the necessary legislation for acquisition of plant- 
ing land, and for subsidies to local municipalities, was lacking 
at the time, and the reforestation efforts were somewhat limited 
until 1331, when the first large-scale works were started with 
government funds. By 1914 about IS, 000 acres of eroded and neglected 
fields were planted. The First World War interrupted the work, 
and in 1913 the whole area in question came under Italian jurisdiction, 
The new Authorities continued in a limited way with reforestation 
until 1945 (about 100 new acres were planted). 

After 1945 almost all of these lands were taken over by Yugo- 
slavia, and the Forest Service planted until 1953 another 11,000 
acres. Since then more work has been done so that today the total 
reforested area on Karst is about 35,000 acres, mostly in Pinus 
nigra . 

Between 1945 and 1953, the official records show that 11,374,000 
conifer seedlings and £,900 kilograms (about 20,000 pounds) of coni- 
fer seeds were used. In addition 4,379,000 deciduous seedlings 
and 43,000 pounds of leaf -tree seeds were planted. Of conifers, 
by far the most numerous was Pinus nigra ( Pinus silvestris , P. 
strobus , Abies alba, Abies grandis , A. cephalonica and Spruces 
were also used). Deciduous trees planted or seeded include Ashes, 
Oaks, Maples, Walnuts, Chestnuts, Poplars, Willows, and some 
exotics. 

Observations over the Years 

Between 1336 and 1914 the Imperial Austrian Forest Service 
and various municipalities on Karst planted 26 million seedlings 
of Pinus nigra . Of this number, 71% were used for replenishing 
the planted stands because of high mortality. 

Local Nurseries vs. Central Nurseries 

For many years the survival was only around 30%, and it became 
quite evident that the mortality was greatest in those seedlings 
which were supplied from distant nurseries. 



- 39 - 

There was also a considerably higher mortality in all cases 
where the seedlings had to be heeled in before planting instead 
of being planted right away. 

By 1953 the Forest Service had $ larger and 25 small nurser- 
ies in operation on the Karst area itself, and four million seed- 
lings were produced that year on soil and in climate corresponding 
closely to the planting areas. Between 1947 and 1953 the survival 
was 68%, and it is said that they hope to further improve the 
record. 

On Watering the Seedlings 

It has been observed that watering the seedlings did not 
reduce the mortality on Karst. Seedlings from nurseries which 
were fully fertilized did not do as well as those which were 
developed on soils resembling the natural conditions on planting 
sites. Also seedlings which grew close together in nurseries 
showed higher mortality than those which barely touched each other. 

Planting the Seedlings 

Planting in holes (moulds) proved worse than flush with ter- 
rain. Partly this was due to the fact that roots reached too deep 
into lifeless matter, partly because of heat pockets in the holes. 

Planters had very good success where they dug the holes and 
filled them again right away with earth and gravel in the fall, 
and planted trees next spring. A year after, the survival was 97$° 
Three years later it was 87% > 

Winds 

The beneficial effects of the Karst forest belts are already 
visible today, after about 80 years since serious work started, 
and particularly interesting is the comparison between protected 
and unprotected areas where soil moisture is concerned. 

The woods slowed down the wind and rain erosion, improved 
the soils, regulated to a certain degree the climate, preserved 
field moisture. And the Karst foresters value these secondary 
beneficial effects of re-established woods higher than their timber 
value . 

Black Pine 

In more than 100 years the Pinus nigra proved to be by far 
the best suited species for reforestation on these shallow Karst 
soils. Its regeneration is rich, and in places we see already the 
third natural generation of Black Pine reaching merchantable size. 
The foresters there claim that Pinus nigra does not change the 
composition and structure of native and natural vegetation. To 
the contrary, under its protection, the natural vegetation has 
even started to recover. This, foresters claim, is not so with 
other Pine species. Pinus nigra , allegedly, does not supplant 
the native deciduous species, but rather helps by improving their 
shape and economic value . 



- 40 ~ 

Present Use of Pinus Nigra 

Einus nigra was never intended to become the permanent cover 
on Karst, Other , more valuable species are being slowly introduced 
on the improved, enriched soils. In the meantime, Pinus nigra 
is used for production of resin and for pulpwood in progressive 
operations. 

Coppices 

Natural regeneration of native hardwoods was confined mostly 
to those species that coppiced easily and reproduce. Considerable 
efforts are being undertaken to change this wild growth into regu- 
lar forest stands, by thinning and underplanting. 

However, fields with coppices as well as low brush and shrubs 
and bushes are to be greatly preferred to other places which have 
been eroded to such a degree that even junipers have difficulty 
in establishing themselves. Planting among bushes generally was 
more successful than in barren fields. 

Deciding Which Sites to Plant First 

In any new planting of impoverished land the Forest Service 
invites Agronomists, Pedologists, Hydrologists and representatives 
of local governments to co-operate with foresters to decide which 
areas should be tackled first. 

Seeding vs. Planting 

From the experience of reforestation on Karst it is maintained 
that seeding gave good results only in places where the soil was 
loose and deep. Seeding can be carried out also among bushes, but 
the soil has to be worked previously to at least one foot depth to 
further the development of long roots. 

On poor eroded sites seeding rarely showed good results. 

Wind Protection By Shrubs 

Foresters working on Karst 100 years ago recognized the 
importance of bushes and shrubs on planting sites which were 
severely exposed to wind and drought. The best results in plant- 
ing were achieved where the trees were planted right among shrubs. 
In other cases, where shrubs were not present, the planters made 
use of large stones placing them to the windward side of the seed- 
lings for protection. 

Species 

Of all species, Pinus nigra showed the best results in refor- 
estation work on Karst. However, experience showed that the success 
was particularly good where Black Pine was planted on sites which 
already grew mature Ironwood ( Ostrya carpinif olia ) . Mediterranean 
Cypress ( Cupressus ) also showed good results and can be compared to 
our White Cedar [ "Thuja occidentalis ) as a reforestation species. 



- 41 - 

Mediterranean Pine ( Pinus mediterranea ) was used in many- 
places, particularly where the depth of soil was satisfactory, 
and near the seashore . 

In general, deciduous trees fared less well, with the excep- 
tion of Acacia. Oaks proved to be very hard to establish, and 
suffered greatly from weed competition. They survived mainly in 
places where they were planted in clusters of 3 to 15 seedlings 
in a "nest . " 

This "nest" planting technique is reportedly widely used 
also in Russia on poor, eroded sites. It gave excellent results 
on Karst where all other methods failed because of heat, or wind, 
or weed competition. 

Spacing 

Ordinarily seedlings are planted on Karst lxl meter 
(3^3 x 3»3 feet), but sometimes 6x6 feet spacing is used, par- 
ticularly on better sites. 

Changes in Soil 

Although there was much disagreement at first, experience 
has shown that Black Pine was the species best suited for refor- 
estation on the Karst area, particularly on the poorest, sites, 
where no attempt was made to establish permanent forest stands 
in the first generation. As mentioned before, hardwoods planting 
and seeding was much less successful except on better sites, and 
where oaks, ashes, etc., were planted on the edges of the already 
established conifer stands. Pines, particularly Black Pine, 
improve the soil relatively quickly by shedding the needles, and 
they do not absorb as much moisture from the soil as deciduous 
trees. 

G. Kauders , who did considerable work on Karst, wrote in 
1950 : 

"Native species are of course to be considered for refores- 
tation of marginal lands. However, many areas which used to be 
under forest cover in the past have during the years of abandon- 
ment and pasturing completely changed their character. The soil 
lost its former structure and chemical composition, and the micro- 
organisms which once lived there are no longer present. There- 
fore, indigenous tree species are often not necessarily the best 
suited, and we have to try others. Pinus nigra proved to be the 
answer on most Karst areas except on the littoral, where Pinus 
mediterranea does just as well." 

Other foresters came to similar conclusions. 

In 1909 J. Kosovic criticised planters who thought that it 
is always necessary to emulate nature, and to plant on Karst 
only native species. This might be fine for better sites, but 
not for the eroded, badly deteriorated areas. The vegetation on 
such poor Karst fields and pastures perhaps indicates that oak and 
ash, also maple and beech, should again be grown because we see 



- 42 = 

remnants of such stands there. However, what we forget is that 
these hardwoods perpetuated themselves only because they keep 
growing out of stumps, forming coppices. They are there only 
because their ancestral trees established themselves in the old 
days when there still was a reasonable depth of soil, and their 
roots reached deep down. Newly planted hardwoods, however, are 
too weak and tender to resist the drought, sunglare and winds of 
today, and their roots seldom find the necessary depth of soil. 

Reforestation on Deteriorating Fields in Napanee Division 

There are now good prospects that we might acquire several 

hundred acres of poor eroded land along Highway 401 in the Napanee 

Division originally bought by the Department of Highways for road 
construction. 

It is believed that the experience of 100 years of reforesta- 
tion work on Karst could provide us with some information about 
what we can perhaps expect here owing to considerable similarity 
in natural conditions. The Karst foresters say, quite frankly, 
that the main benefit of reforestation works there is not in 
timber production but rather in secondary effects of forest cover: 
recovery of water-level, protection of fields for drought and wind, 
aesthetic values important for tourism and recreation. The exist- 
ing plans call for another 38,000 hectares (about 95,000 acres) 
of plantation on Karst, and if work proceeds there at the present 
pace, it will be another 100 years before the goal is reached. 

In the Napanee Division there are, according to our estimates, 
about 120,000 acres of so-called critical areas, i.e. idle fields 
and pastures which are still deteriorating. Dr . Wallace of Queen 1 s 
University stated a few years ago that : "Recent observations show 
that in spite of the expanded conservation programmes of the govern- 
ment in recent years, the submarginal areas are growing larger, 
the water in streams and wells is becoming less, and erosion of 
different types, including topsoil washing on agricultural land, is 
increasing. At the present rate at which remedial measures are 
being applied, it is estimated that it would take several hundred 
years to deal with the problem." 

In the opinion of our Agricultural Authorities at least 20% 
of any section of farming land should be in forest growth to prevent 
damages from droughts, floods and tempests. 

At present there are some agriculture areas in the Napanee 
Division which have these 20% of forest growth, but most do not, 
nor have they, 10% or 5%. 

N ote 

The above paper on reforestation experiences on Karst was 
prepared from articles published in the booklet "Re-establishment 
of Forest on Karst," re-edited by the Yugoslav Forestry Institute, 
from works by G. Kauders, J. Kosovic , A. Sivic , and from the 
recollections of the undersigned while assisting the Economic 
Adviser, Marshall Plan, Trieste, 1943 to 1951. 



- 43 - 

REPORT ON KUKAGAMI LAKE ANGLING SUCCESS, 1961 

by 
D, R„ Hughson 
Conservation Officer, Sudbury District 



During 
ing 931 
Based o 
caught 
350 gue 
2,572 h 
intenti 
with re 
of lal:e 



the 1961 

hours to 
n a total 
an estima 
sts of th 
ours to o 
on to con 
gards the 
trout be 



Abstract 

winter creel census, 195 anglers fish- 
ok 47 lake trout from Kukagami Lake. 

car count, an estimated 1,190 anglers 
ted 2S6 trout In the summer of 1961, 
e Sportsman 9 s Inn on Kukagami angled 
btain 414 trout . It is the writer's 
inue work on this lake particularly 
use of scuba equipment in the study 
haviour» 



Purpose 

Following the receipt of a petition to the Sudbury District 
Office in I960 regarding the closing of Kukagami Lake to winter 
angling, Fish and Wildlife Supervisor, Co F„ Bibby, instructed 
the writer to conduct a creel census on this lake. The petition 
was signed by the majority of the camp owners and two tourist 
outfitters operating on Kukagami Lake, 

A brio, progress report was prepared for this office and 
on the basis of this, and discussion with other interested parties, 
it was recommended by Sudbury District Office that the lake be 
closed to winter angling* 

Kukagami has since been proclaimed a Fish Sanctuary and 
was closed to angl< rs from January 26 to April 30-, 1962, and it is 
expected that this closure will be effective in subsequent years 
from January 1 zo A_ ril 30 . 

Kukagami La ke 

The waters of Kukagami Lake lie in the townships of Kelly, 
r.athbun, Davis and Sc ;, which are approximately 30 miles 
northeast of Sudbury by road. 

The water of this lake is very clear, allowing enough 
light penetration to make out detail of the bottom at 100 feet 
when divingo 

The lake has a surface area of approximately 4,350 acres 
and the depth varies from over 100 feet to shoals one to four feet 
deep. Numerous shoals, rock islands and points in this lake appear 
to provide adequate spawning locations for lake trout. The shoreline 
is predominately rock, with some sand areas. The forest type surround- 
ing the lake is second growth trembling aspen, white birch, white and 
red pine. 



- 44 - 

There are two tourist camps operating on Kukagami and 
approximately 30 private camps. Kukagami also receives considerable 
fishing pressure from local anglers, particularly during the winter 
months, in a year of light snowfall <> 

The fish species most sought after in this lake is lake 
trout, Kukagami Lake has been popular as a good trout producing 
lake in the Sudbury District for many years. It is still producing 
lake trout of good size variation, ranging from less than a pound to 
over 20 pounds This fishery, however, is considered by some of the 
camp owners to be deteriorating to some extent, hence the petition. 

Kukagami has been stocked with smallmouth black bass.. 
This introduction has succeeded in establishing this species, but at 
the present time it is of minor importance o Yellow perch have been 
present in the lake for the past ten years, but as a general rule, 
do not grow to a size where they can be utilized by the angler. 

The writer would also like to add in the description that 
Kukagami is a very scenic lake and extremely attractive to the 
tourist e This is partially due to only slight variations in water 
level which has preserved a clean shoreline. The outlet is controlled 
by an old dam which is not in operation, meaning the lake is not 
artificially lowered at any time. The incoming water is limited to 
a number of small streams. 

Method 

As available time was the limiting factor in this creel 
census, it was only conducted on four days, during the winter period. 
This was done using the Department's snow toboggan on one occasion 
assisted by Conservation Officer, C. H. Edwards; the Department 
aircraft on two trips and a Department truck on the fourth patrol. 

The caretaker of George Loney v s camp (Sportsman Inn) 
assisted considerably in the winter work by providing a total daily 
count of vehicles coming to the lake. From this, an estimate of 
total angling pressure and catch has been calculated for the entire 
winter period. 

Table 1 shows the actual figures for the days the 
census was conducted, with monthly angling success in terms of trout 
caught per 100 rod-hours. The number of apprehensions are also 
listed. Nearly all were the use of multiple lines. Numerous anglers 
using two lines were warned, but no charges laid. 

Table 2 shows the calculated total angling pressure for 
each month using the total daily car count provided by Loney 9 s Camp 
and an average of 2.6 men per car obtained from Table 1. 

Table 2 also shows an estimate of the total monthly catch 
based on the estimated total anglers and 24 per cent success deter- 
mined from Table 1, viz: total anglers checked and total trout caught 

47 
195 X 100 = 24$ 



- 45 - 

The figures for the summer months were obtained from a 
creel census kept by Mr. and Mrs. George Loney, operators of the 
Sportsman Inn, tourist camp e This information is shown in Table 3> 
where it is broken down into semi-monthly periods. Table 3 shows 
total anglers and hours, trout caught, and anglers* success in 
terms of trout caught per 100 rod-hours and trout per angler day. 

Table 4 compares the winter anglers checked with the 
summer figures. This doesn't include the calculated winter data. 

Summary and Conclusions 

1. Of primary importance when considering winter data is 
the fact that 1961 was a year of very light snowfall and the 
road to Kukagami was open most of the winter. Such winter 
conditions are very unusual. The pressure on this lake, there- 
fore, is normally much less in the winter period. 

2. While the actual census made in the winter was quite small 
it gives an estimated total angling pressure and catch when used 
in conjunction with the total car count. This estimate is 
considered by the author to be reasonably close to the actual 
pressure and catch. 

3. As in the Penage Lake reports (Hughson I960 & 1961) the 
main value to the winter angler is recreational. About one 
person in four takes home a fish. The average trout per 100 
rod-hours for the winter in Kukagami was 4»$, as compared to 3»1 
in Lake Penage (1961) . Likewise, similar to Penage, the summer 
angling success rated in trout per 100 rod-hours was much 
better than the winter. 

4» In Kukagami, the summer angling success shows three 
peaks; (a) around the first of May, due possibly to the dis- 
appearance of the ice; (b) late June, trout moving to deep 
water; (c) August, prior to return to shallower water. 

5» Kukagami is still producing good lake trout fishing 

after many years of popularity and angling pressure. This is 
due to adequate spawning locations and constant water level „ 

6. Due to the fact that this lake has a good access road, its 
proximity to Sudbury, and since it is not an exceptionally 
large lake, it is conceivable that year round angling could be 
detrimental to the trout fishery, particularly with the growing 
popularity of winter angling. 

Recommendations and Future Work 

Mr, Loney will be asked to continue the summer creel census 
for another year. The second camp operated on Kukagami will be 
approached this spring to conduct a similar census. 

Last autumn, Conservation Officer, J. M. Sheppard and the 
writer, using scuba equipment, dove to evaluate the use of spawning 
beds by lake trout. However, weather conditions were unusual last 
fall and there wasn't adequate time available to do as complete a 
check as was desired. 



- 46 - 

It is the writer's intention to continue the work on lake 
trout in this lake particularly with regards to the use of scuba 
equipment in the study of lake trout behaviour, habitat selection 
and spawning behaviour. 

Acknowledgments 

Thanks are due to Mr. and Mrs. George Loney of the 
Sportsman's Inn for the interest they have shown by conducting 
the creel census for the summer months, also, for the total car 
count in the winter. 

Also, I would like to thank Conservation Officer, C. H. 
Edwards for assistance in the winter patrols and Conservation 
Officer, J. M. Sheppard, for assistance in diving on the spawning 
shoals last fall. 

References 

Hughson, Do R. I960 - Report on Penage Lake Angling Success, 
I960; Fish and Wildlife Management Report, No. 5#, 
July, 1961. 

1961 - Report on Penage Lake Angling Success, 
1961; UnpubL 



DATE 



- 47 - 

Table 1 - Daily Record of Anglers and Catch 



CARS 
CHECKED 



ANGLERS 



ROD- 
HOURS 



TROUT 
CAUGHT 



TROUT 
100 /ROD- 
HOURS 



APPREHENSIONS 



Jan, 15 

Feb. 5 

Feb. 12 

Mar. 5 

TOTALS 



29 

21 

18 

7 



75 



SO 
61 

43 
11 



390 

305 

233 

53 



20 

15 

11 

1 



) 



195 



981 



47 



5.1 

4*8 

1.9 



4.8 



6 
1 
1 



8 



Table 2 - Estimated Fishing Pressure and Harvest 





TOTAL 


ESTIMATED 


ESTIMATED NO. 


MONTH 


CARS 


ANGLERS 


TROUT CAUGHT 


January- 


127 


330 


79 


February 


207 


538 


129 


March 


107 


278 


67 


April 
TOTALS: 


17 


44 


11 


458 


1,190 


286 



48 



Table 3 - Fishing Success Data 







NO. OF 




TROUT CAUGHT 






NO. OF 


ANGLING 


TROUT 


PER 100 


TROUT 


DATE 


ANGLERS 


HOURS 


CAUGHT 


ROD /HOURS 


PER ANGLER 


May 1-15 


43 


344 


70 


20.3 


1.6 


" 16-31 


190 


1,520 


213 


14.0 


1.1 


June 1-15 


23 


176 


24 


13 o 6 


1.0 


" 16-30 


11 


64 


15 


23.4 


1,4 


July 1-15 


34 


246 


39 


15o4 


1.1 


M 16-31 


10 


72 


7 


9.7 


o7 


Aug. 1-15 


22 


86 


26 


30.2 


1.2 


w 16-31 


13 


48 


15 


31.2 


1.1 


Sept. 1-15 


- 










M 16-30 


- 










Oct. 1-15 
TOTALS 


4 


16 


5 


31.2 


1.2 


350 


2,572 


414 


16.1 


1.2 



Table 4 - Comparative Seasonal Data on Angling Success 



PERIOD 


DAYS IN 
SAMPLE 


ANGLERS 


ROD- 
HOURS 


TROUT 
CAUGHT 


TROUT PER 
100 ROD-HOURS 


Winter 
Summer 


4 
57 


195 
350 


981 
2,572 


47 
414 


4.8 
16.1 



- 49 - 

A SUMMARY OF THE BAIT-FISH INDUSTRY IN THE 
KENORA DISTRICT - 1961 



by 
A. R. Olsen 
Fisheries Management Technician 

Abstract 

A questionnaire requesting information on all phases 
of the bait-fish industry was issued to 134 bait-dealers 
during the summer of 1961 o This paper summarizes this 
information under the following headings: Value of 
equipment; kind of bait caught; type and amount of 
gear used; holding and transporting facilities; value 
of bait fish handled by operator. 



Introduction 

During the summer of 1961, all bait-fish licencees were 
supplied with a questionnaire entitled "Annual Commercial Bait-fish 
Return" o This return was similar to the one issued with Circular 
F.W. 1-1-1, Instructions were also given that issuance of 1962 
licences would not be considered unless this questionnaire was 
completed and returned before December 31> 19ol. 

The most recent report for this District on the bait fish 
situation was compiled by J, M. Fraser in 1956 covering the season 
of 1955 and entitled "The Minnow Situation in the Kenora District „" 

Since that time it was felt that this industry had grown 
to such an extent and is contributing so greatly to the economic 
status of the District that it should receive special attention 
particularly regarding control and licencing of areas. 

Data Received from Questionnaires 

Of 134 bait-fish licencees in the District, 112 completed 
and returned the questionnaires. The 22 licencees not making 
returns are known to be in the business as a part time hobby or 
retail a few dozen for camp guests and make up a very small portion 
of the overall monies involved. 

The information received is estimated to represent 
approximately 95 per cent of the total revenue of the entire 
industry. 

Value of Equipment 

The portion of the questionnaire dealing with equipment 
involved was, in most cases, completed. The significance of these 
data is questionable as indicated by one return showing one aircraft 
5^7000, one pick-up truck $1250 and traps and tanks and ponds $300 
for a total value of $8550. The amount of bait fish caught and 
sold by this operator was 100 dozen valued at $140.00. 



- 50 - 

It is known that this equipment is used primarily in the 
operation of a tourist camp and not in the minnow business. Likewise, 
the cost of water supply was given as the total value of the system 
supplying an entire camp whereas actually only an extension of a 
pipe was the only expense connected directly with the minnow opera- 
tion. Therefore, these data are not included as cost in the 
operations. 

The total value of equipment which is known to be used 
exclusively for and purchased for the business was calculated. 
This equipment includes traps, seines, ponds, boats, live boxes, 
agitators and mobile tanks and has a total value of $64,440.00, 

Types of Licences Held by Those Making Returns 

Returns were received from 112 or S3 per cent of the 134 
licencees. Of these, 102 held licences for taking bait fish by 
either seines or traps or both. Many of these fishermen also held 
dealers' licences to permit them to buy from other operators as a 
supplement to their own catches to fill special orders. The 
remaining 10 of the 112 licencees making returns held only bait-fish 
dealers 9 licences and are involved in the industry only on the retail 
basis. 

Amount of Gear Used and Amount Paid for Licences 

The amount of fishing gear licenced to each fisherman 
varies considerably. One large operator holds licences covering 
120 traps and two seines and therefore pays $260.00 in licence fees 
while other individuals hold as little as one trap licence valued 
at $2.00. 

The total amount received in licence fees for the various 
types of licences are: 

Type G - (Seine, trap, dip net) $2,753»00 

Type E - (Der?.ers) 520.00 

Type F - (Preserving) 20.00 

Total $3,293oOO 



- 51 - 

Table I - Showing Gross Sales of Bait Fish Per Year by- 
Operators Classified into Groups 



No. of 
Operators 



Per cent 
of all 
Operators 



Average Gross 
Sales per 
Operator 



Total Gross 
Sales of All 
Operators 



Under $100.00 

$ 101.00 - $ 500.00 
501.00 - 1000.00 
1001.00 - 2000.00 
2001.00 - 3000.00 
3001.00 - 5000.00 
5001.00 - 10000.00 

10001.00 - 15000.00 

15001.00 - 20000.00 



35 
36 
13 
8 
2 
4 
5 
3 
1 



31.2 
32.1 
16.1 

7.1 
1.8 
3.6 
4.5 
2.7 
0.9 



17.34 

283.57 

678.08 

1467.17 

2762.47 

3683.28 

5869.06 

11835.11 

16116.85 



$ 



606.80 
10208.54 
12205.55 
11737.40 

5524.95 
14733.15 
29345.30 
35505.35 
16116.85 



Total 



112 



100.0 



$135,983.89 



Value of Bait Fish Handled by Operators 

Table I shows gross sales by both fishermen and dealers 
which have been classified into various groups by value of bait fish 
handled. 

The total amount of $135,983.89 represents the volume 
handled by operators and is not the value of bait fish actually sold 
to anglers. 

Where a bait-fisherman shows the value of minnows sold to 
anglers and dealers with no breakdown for each outlet, the total value 
has, in many cases, been duplicated. 

Bait-fish dealers also show amounts of minnows sold to 
anglers and value, this same amount shown by bait-fishermen. 

In order that a fair estimate of value of bait fish could 
be arrived at, further enquiries were made to determine retail price 
of bait fish to anglers. 

From these enquiries it was found that bait fish were sold 
at the following prices. Chubs, graded as to size, Large - 20% (? $1.25 
per dozen; Medium - 60% @ $.75 per dozen; Small - 20% @ $.50 per dozen; 
Suckers @ $1.00 per dozen average; Shiners @ $.50 per dozen and Others 
$.60 per dozen. 









- 52 - 








Usin 


g these p 


rices Table II shows estimated value 


1 of each 


species of bait 


fish sold to anglers, as well as value of be 


lit 


fish caught to 


show loss 


The value of bait fish 


sold to ar 


Lglers 


and reported in 


the District is $104,652.35 for 143,391 dozen bait 


fish. 


The overall value 


including estimated 5 per 


cent not 


reported 


is $109,335.49 


for 151,035 dozen sold. 






able II 


- Estima 


ted Values of Bait Fish Caught, Sold and Lost 






in Holding and 


Handling 








# of 












Doz* 


$.50 


$.60 $.75 $1.00 


$1.25 


Total 


aught 
















( 20$ 


( 60$ 


( 20$ 




hubs 


162,335 


$16,233, 
(100$ 


$73,293. 


$40,721. 


$130,303. 


hiners 


40,632 


20,316. 


( 100$ 




20,316. 


uckers 


5,990 




$5,990. 
(100$ 




5,990. 


thers 
Total 


6,613 




$3,967. 




3,967. 


211.740 








160,531. 


old 




( 20$ 


(60$ 


( 20$ 




hubs 


99,719 


$ 9,957. 
(100$ 


$44,373. 


$24,930. 


$79,760. 


hiners 
[ 


34,506 


17,253. 


(100$ 




17,253. 


uckers 


4,600 




$4,600. 

( 100%) 




4,600. 


thers 
Total 


5,066 




$3,039. 




3,039. 


143,391 








104, 652. 


OSS 




(205b) 


( 60$ 


( 20$ 




hubs 


63,166 


$ 6,316. 
(100$ 


v28 , 424. 


$15,791. 


^50,532. 


hiners 


6,126 


3,063. 


(100$ 




3,063. 


uckers 


1,390 




$1,390. 
(100$ 




1,390. 


thers 
. Total 


1.547 




$ 923. 




928. 


72.229. 








$55,913. 















53 



Propagation 



Only one bait- fish fishermen reported stocking a pond with 
propagation in mind. In this case it was only 100 dozen and this 
figure was not used in any other compilation because of its insigni- 
ficance. 

Kind of Bait Caught and Type of Gear Used 

Approximately 90 per cent of all chubs, suckers and others 
(which are mainly dace) are taken in traps while practically all 
shiners are taken by seine. 

Table III shows percentage of total catch of bait fish 
which is made up by each species and are Chubs - 75.37 ; Shiners 18.87 ; 
Suckers - 2.8% and others - 3.1%. 

Table III - Catch, Sales, Loss and Percentage of Total Catch 
Represented by Each Species 



Species 


Caught 


Sold to 
Anglers 


Per cent 
Loss 


Per cent cf All 
Species Caught 


Chubs 
Shiners 
Suckers 
Others 


162,885 

40,632 

5,990 

6,613 


99,719 

34,506 

4,600 

5,066 


38.8 
15.1 
23.2 
23.4 


75.3 

18.8 

2.8 

3.1 


Total 


216,120 


143,391 




100.0 



Holding and Transporting Facilities 

The holding and handling facilities vary considerably and 
are dependent on the size of the business. Some well established 
minnow fishermen have several very satisfactory spring-fed ponds 
which have been built at considerable expense. These larger operators 
have acquired a vast knowledge of harvesting and holding bait fish 
and are now operating with a very small percentage of loss. Three 
such fishermen use powdered soluble livestock terramycin for 
treatment of stock immer lately after taken from traps or seines. 
This has all but eliminated loss due to saprolegnia or other such 
causes. 



Some well organized dealers in the District have invested 
in elaborate fibre-glass tanks and refrigeration units which are 
quite satisfactory. 



- 54 - 

Transporting facilities are usually a pick-up truck, jeep 
or other such vehicle equipped with tanks, pumps and spray nozzles. 
Four district bait- fish fishermen use aircraft in their operation of 
catching and transporting to respective dealers. 

Comments of Bait- fishermen 

Few comments were received on the Bait- fish Return. 
Personal contact with bait- fishermen revealed that requests were 
nearly unanimous from those representing the bulk of the industry for 
a standard licence fee running in the neighbourhood of $100 » 00. This 
would eliminate the necessity of obtaining a separate licencie for 
each small lake fished. 

A few operators suggested that the taking of bait fish 
be restricted to residents of the Province. 



u .: 



i V 



Up : . . ''■'■'■'' • J '■ '"£)'.. ! I '. il 



i ' :»: * j